Guides on the topics to be provided
The Security Council is the United Nations’ most powerful body, with “primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security.” Five powerful countries sit as “permanent members” (the USA, the UK, France, Russia and China) along with ten elected members with two-year terms. Since 1990, the Council has dramatically increased its activity and it now meets in nearly continuous session. It dispatches military operations, imposes sanctions, mandates arms inspections, deploys election monitors and more.
Each member has one vote. On all “procedural” matters—the definition of which is sometimes in dispute—decisions by the council are made by an affirmative vote of any nine of its members. Substantive matters, such as the investigation of a dispute or the application of sanctions, also require nine affirmative votes, including those of the five permanent members holding veto power. A vote on whether a matter is procedural or substantive is itself a substantive question.
One of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), responsible for the direction and coordination of the economic, social, humanitarian, and cultural activities carried out by the UN. It is the UN’s largest and most complex subsidiary body.
The council was designed to be the UN’s main venue for the discussion of international economic and social issues. ECOSOC conducts studies; formulates resolutions, recommendations, and conventions for consideration by the General Assembly; and coordinates the activities of various UN organizations. Most of ECOSOC’s work is performed in functional commissions on topics such as human rights, narcotics, population, social development, statistics, the status of women, and science and technology; the council also oversees regional commissions for Europe, Asia and the Pacific, Western Asia, Latin America, and Africa. The UN charter allows ECOSOC to grant consultative status to nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Beginning in the mid-1990s, measures were taken to increase the participation of such NGOs, and by the early 21st century more than 2,500 NGOs had been granted consultative status.
The UN HRC was established in 2006 following a resolution by the UN General Assembly. At the same time, the UN closed the former Commission on Human Rights. The UN HRC meets a number of times each year and is able to deal with emergency situations where human rights are being violated as they arise.
The Council serves as a forum for dialogue among States, with input from other stakeholders. As a result of its discussions, the Council may issue resolutions calling on States to take specific actions or uphold certain principles, or it may create mechanisms to investigate or monitor questions of concern.
The Human Rights Council has created or renewed the mandates of various “special procedures.” The special procedures are experts appointed to monitor human rights around priority themes or in specific countries with serious human rights problems. The special procedures may be individual experts (“special rapporteurs” or “independent experts”) or working groups. The Council also manages the Universal Periodic Review, a process through which each UN Member State’s overall human rights record is reviewed.
For the first time in Polmun’s history we have created the crisis committee. Crisis committees are substantially different from other, regular committees that can be done during the conferences – we hope our crisis to be little less formal and far far more dynamic and maybe even dramatic at times!
In the real world, situations arise that cannot be handled in the calm methodical setting of a committee. An international crises can flare up at any moment and they must be dealt with accordingly or things could get much worse. When this happens, emergency sessions take place at the highest level of government. These situation room situations are unpredictable. They force delegates and representatives to think quickly and decisively. In a crisis cabinet, a lot of things might be going on at the same time. Delegates will need to formally debate, communicate with one another, communicate with the Backroom, keep track of the press, enhance diplomatic relationships with other delegates and develop a strategy. Sometimes errors are made, or remedied, within a short time span. And our Crisis committee is going to simulate such situations. Wars may break out, natural disasters can occur, and scandals can be revealed. Delegates must be able to think quickly, for a single crisis may alter the course of the debate and create new issues to be tackled.